Questions and answers about the proposed First Nations Voice to Parliament

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Questions and answers about the proposed First Nations Voice to Parliament


FOOTNOTES

[1] International Labour Organisation, C107 – Indigenous and Tribal Populations Convention, 1957 (No. 107), https://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:12000:::NO:::

[2] International Labour Organisation, C169 – Indigenous and Tribal Peoples Convention, 1989 (No. 169).

[3] United Nations, Resolution 61/295, Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous People,

https://www.un.org/development/desa/indigenouspeoples/wp-content/uploads/sites/19/2018/11/UNDRIP_E_web.pdf

[4] Law Council of Australia, Inquiry into the Application of the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples in Australia, https://www.lawcouncil.asn.au/resources/submissions/inquiry-into-the-application-of-the-united-nations-declaration-on-the-rights-of-indigenous-peoples-in-australia.

[5] Secret Instructions to Lieutenant Cook, 30 July 1768, https://www.foundingdocs.gov.au/resources/transcripts/nsw1_doc_1768.pdf

[6] 175 CLR 1.

[7] S James Anaya, Indigenous Peoples in International Law (Oxford University Press, 2004).

[8] United Nations, United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, https://www.un.org/development/desa/indigenouspeoples/wp-content/uploads/sites/19/2018/11/UNDRIP_E_web.pdf.

[9] Australian Human Rights Commission, United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, https://declaration.humanrights.gov.au/.

[10] Australian Human Rights Commission, ‘Chart of Australian Treaty Ratifications as of May 2012’, https://humanrights.gov.au/our-work/commission-general/chart-australian-treaty-ratifications-may-2012-human-rights-your.

[11] Anaya, Indigenous Peoples in International Law, 104–106.

[12] Melissa Castan, ‘Constitutional Recognition, Self-Determination and an Indigenous Representative Body’, Indigenous Law Bulletin 8,19 (2015), p. 15.

[13] Inquiry into the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Voice Referendum, ‘Submissions Received by the Committee’, https://www.aph.gov.au/Parliamentary_Business/Committees/Joint/Former_Committees/Aboriginal_and_Torres_Strait_Islander_Voice_Referendum/VoiceReferendum/Submissions.

[14] For a summary, see National Museum of Australia, ‘Indigenous Australians’ right to vote’, https://www.nma.gov.au/defining-moments/resources/indigenous-australians-right-to-vote.

[15] Jason O’Neil, ‘Designing an Indigenous Voice that empowers: How constitutional recognition could strengthen First Nations sovereignty’, Alternative Law Journal 46,3 (2021): 201, DOI: 10.1177/1037969X211009628; see also Asmi Wood, ‘Self-determination under international law and some possibilities for Australia’s Indigenous peoples’, in Indigenous self-determination in AustraliaHistories and historiography, ed. Laura Rademaker and Tim Rowse (Canberra: ANU Press, 2020).

[16] Thomas Mayor, ‘The torment of our powerlessness: The Uluru Statement and enshrining a voice for Indigenous peoples’, Australian Options 87 (2018): 9, https://search.informit.org/doi/10.3316/informit.515194413324692.

[17] Gareth Evans, ‘Listening to the Voice’, The Saturday Paper, January 21, 2023, https://www.thesaturdaypaper.com.au/opinion/topic/2023/01/21/listening-the-voice.

[18] Ian Anderson, ‘Voice will give Indigenous people rights that others take for granted’, The Age, February 5, 2023, https://www.theage.com.au/national/voice-will-give-indigenous-people-rights-that-others-take-for-granted-20230202-p5chgc.html.

[19] Catherine Liddle, ‘Do ask Alice: Why my people need a Voice in the wilderness’, The Age, February 16, 2023, https://www.theage.com.au/national/do-ask-alice-why-my-people-need-a-voice-in-the-wilderness-20230214-p5ckgy.html.

[20] Mayor, ‘The torment of our powerlessness’, 7.

[21] Evans, ‘Listening to the Voice’.

[22] Dani Larkin and Kate Galloway, ‘Uluru Statement from the Heart: Australian public law pluralism’, Bond Law Review 30,2 (2018): 339, https://doi.org/10.53300/001c.6796. 

[23] Fiona Stanley et al., ‘Australian First Nations response to the pandemic: A dramatic reversal of the “gap”’, Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health 57,12 (2021): 1853, DOI: 10.1111/jpc.15701.

[24] Stanley et al., ‘First Nations response to the pandemic’, 1853.

[25] Stanley et al., ‘First Nations response to the pandemic’, 1855.

[26] Isaac Nellist, ‘“Voice is a distraction – we are entitled to a treaty”’, Green Left Weekly 1361 (2022): 7, https://www.greenleft.org.au/content/tasmanian-aboriginal-centre-president-graeme-gardner-voice-distraction-we-are-entitled.

[27] Nicholas Hasluck, ‘Sounds of Division in the Voice from Uluru’, Quadrant (July-August 2019): 70.

[28] Nyunggai Warren Mundine, ‘Do we really need an Indigenous “voice” to parliament?’ Centre for Independent Studies, September 4, 2022, https://www.cis.org.au/commentary/opinion/do-we-really-need-an-indigenous-voice-to-parliament/.

[29] Nellist, ‘Voice is a distraction’, 7.

[30] Hasluck, ‘Sounds of division’, 70; Mundine, ‘Indigenous “voice” to parliament?’

[31] Hasluck, ‘Sounds of division’, 73.

[32] Mundine, ‘Indigenous “voice” to parliament?’

[33] Megan Davis, ‘What happens next for the Voice?’ The Saturday Paper, June 8, 2023, https://www.thesaturdaypaper.com.au/opinion/topic/2022/08/06/what-happens-next-the-voice.

[34] Lorena Allam, ‘How would an Indigenous voice work and what are people saying about it?’ The Guardian, August 28, 2022, https://www.theguardian.com/australia-news/2022/aug/28/how-would-an-indigenous-voice-work-and-what-are-people-saying-about-it.

[35] Gabrielle Appleby and Megan Davis, ‘This is Australia’s opportunity to reset its relationship with the Indigenous community’, Australian Institute of Company Directors, 2019, https://www.aicd.com.au/corporate-governance-sectors/indigenous/business/first-nations-voice.html.

[36] Anthony Albanese, interviewed by Tom Crowley, February 5, 2023, https://www.pm.gov.au/media/podcast-interview-daily-aus.

[37] Appleby and Davis, ‘Australia’s opportunity to reset its relationship’.

[38] Appleby and Davis, ‘Australia’s opportunity to reset its relationship’.

[39] National Indigenous Australians Agency, Indigenous Voice Co-design Process Final Report to the Australian Government (Canberra: Commonwealth of Australia, 2021), 230, https://voice.niaa.gov.au/sites/default/files/2021-12/indigenous-voice-co-design-process-final-report_1.pdf.

[40] Dani Larkin and Kate Galloway, ‘Uluru Statement from the Heart’, 342.

[41] Anne Twomey, ‘Parliament, not the devil, should control the detail on the Voice’, The Sydney Morning Herald, January 1, 2023, https://www.smh.com.au/national/parliament-not-the-devil-should-control-the-detail-on-the-voice-20230101-p5c9pe.html.

[42] Twomey, ‘Parliament should control the detail’.

[43] National Indigenous Australians Agency, Indigenous Voice Co-design Process.

[44] National Indigenous Australians Agency, Indigenous Voice Co-design Process, 6.

[45] Megan Davis, ‘What happens next for the Voice?’ 

[46] Anthony Galloway, ‘“Nonsense and mischief”: Pat Dodson slams critics of the Voice’, The Age, February 4, 2023, https://www.theage.com.au/politics/federal/nonsense-and-mischief-pat-dodson-slams-critics-of-the-voice-20230204-p5chwi.html.

[47] Davis, ‘What happens next for the Voice?’

[48] Davis, ‘What happens next for the Voice?’

[49] Twomey, ‘Parliament should control the detail’.

[50] Twomey, ‘Parliament should control the detail’.

[51] Davis, ‘What happens next for the Voice?’

[52] Twomey, ‘Parliament should control the detail’.

[53] Dani Larkin and Kate Galloway, ‘Constitutionally entrenched Voice to Parliament: Representation and good governance’, Alternative Law Journal 46,3 (2021): 194, DOI: 10.1177/1037969X211019807.

[54] Larkin and Galloway, ‘Constitutionally entrenched Voice’, 194.

[55] Francis Markham and Will Sanders, Support for a constitutionally enshrined First Nations Voice (Canberra: Centre for Aboriginal Economic Policy Research, ANU, 2020): 3.

[56] Malcolm Turnbull, cited in Nicholas Hasluck, ‘Sounds of Division’, 69.

[57] Malcolm Turnbull, ‘I will be voting yes to establish an Indigenous Voice to parliament’, The Guardian, August 15, 2022, https://www.theguardian.com/australia-news/commentisfree/2022/aug/15/i-will-be-voting-yes-to-establish-an-indigenous-voice-to-parliament.

[58] Larkin and Galloway, ‘Constitutionally entrenched Voice’, 194.

[59] Larkin and Galloway, ‘Constitutionally entrenched Voice’, 194.

[60] Markham and Sanders, Support for a constitutionally enshrined First Nations Voice, 5.

[61] National Indigenous Australians Agency, Indigenous Voice Co-design Process, 6. 

[62] National Indigenous Australians Agency, Indigenous Voice Co-design Process, 203.

[63] Marcia Langton, ‘Fighting for a Voice’, The Saturday Paper, January 7, 2023, https://www.thesaturdaypaper.com.au/opinion/topic/2023/01/07/fighting-voice.

[64] Asmi Wood, ‘Voice, treaty, truth: Can we get to an affirmative 91.4 percent again?’ Law Society Journal 1 (2022): 80, https://search.informit.org/doi/10.3316/agispt.20220805071890.

[65] Fred Chaney, ‘The reality that supports the recognition of the Voice’, Pearls and Irritations, April 3, 2023, https://johnmenadue.com/the-reality-that-supports-the-recognition-of-the-voice/.

[66] Dani Larkin and Kate Galloway, ‘Uluru Statement from the Heart’, 337.

[67] Andrew Fitzmaurice, Sovereignty, property and empire1500–2000 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014).

[68] Wood, ‘Voice, treaty, truth’, 82.

[69] Chaney, ‘The reality that supports the recognition of the Voice’.

[70] Wood, ‘Voice, treaty, truth’, 82–83.

[71] Wood, ‘Voice, treaty, truth’, 83.

[72] Wood, ‘Voice, treaty, truth’, 84.

[73] Laura Rademaker and Tim Rowse, ‘How shall we write the history of self-determination in Australia?’ in Indigenous Self-Determination in Australia, ed. Laura Rademaker and Tim Rowse (Canberra: Australian National University Press and Aboriginal History Inc., 2020): 2.

[74] Bronwyn Fredericks, ‘Why I “still” hear it on the radio and I “still” see it on the television: Treaty and the Uluru Statement from the Heart’, Journal of Australian Indigenous Issues 25,3 (2022): 5. https://search.informit.org/doi/10.3316/informit.692861368672485.

[75] Fredericks, ‘Treaty and the Uluru Statement from the Heart’.

[76] Rademaker and Rowse, ‘How shall we write the history of self-determination?’, 2.

[77] Jesse John Fleay and Barry Judd, ‘The Uluru Statement: A First Nation’s perspective of the implications for social reconstructive race relations in Australia’, International Journal of Critical Indigenous Studies 12,1 (2019): 5, DOI: 10.5204/ijcis.v12i1.532.

[78] National Indigenous Australians Agency, Indigenous Voice Co-design Process.

[79] Anthony Galloway, ‘“Nonsense and mischief”’.

[80] Galloway, ‘“Nonsense and mischief”’.

[81] Marcia Langton, ‘Fighting for a Voice’. 

[82] Galloway, ‘“Nonsense and mischief”’.

[83] Glenn Loughrey, Unpacking the Uluru Statement from the Heart (ACT: Crawford School of Public Policy), 29, DOI: 10.25911/R0PR-VM31.

[84] Fleay and Judd, ‘The Uluru Statement’, 7.

[85] Fleay and Judd, ‘The Uluru Statement’, 3.

[86] Megan Davis et al., ‘The Uluru Statement’, Bar News (2018): 43, https://search.informit.org/doi/10.3316/informit.679388156051951.

[87] Fleay and Judd, ‘The Uluru Statement’, 3.

[88] Jason O’Neil, ‘Designing an Indigenous Voice’, 199.

[89] National Indigenous Australians Agency, Indigenous Voice Co-design Process, 7.

[90] Thomas Mayor, ‘The torment of our powerlessness’, 8.

[91] Loughrey, Unpacking the Uluru Statement, 26.

[92] National Indigenous Australians Agency, Indigenous Voice Co-design Process, 7.

[93] Lorena Allam and Josh Butler, ‘Voice referendum: Who’s behind the yes and no campaigns and how do they plan to convince Australia?’ The Guardian, February 20, 2023, https://www.theguardian.com/australia-news/2023/feb/20/voice-referendum-whos-behind-the-yes-and-no-campaigns-and-how-do-they-plan-to-convince-australia.

[94] Waleed Aly, ‘The biggest threat to the Voice is the tenor of today’s politics’, The Age, January 27, 2023, https://www.theage.com.au/national/the-biggest-threat-to-the-voice-is-the-tenor-of-today-s-politics-20230126-p5cfm2.html.

[95] Allam and Butler, ‘Voice referendum’.

[96] Davis, ‘The Uluru statement four years on’, The Saturday Paper, May 29, 2023, https://www.thesaturdaypaper.com.au/opinion/topic/2021/05/29/the-uluru-statement-four-years/162221040011758.

[97] Bianca Hall, ‘The rejection of the Voice and the risk it poses to the referendum’, The Age, January 29, 2023, https://www.theage.com.au/national/the-rejection-of-the-voice-and-the-risk-it-poses-to-the-referendum-20230124-p5cf4y.html.

[98] All cited in Hall, ‘The rejection of the Voice’.

[99] Amy Dale, ‘From the heart: Enshrining constitutional recognition’, Law Society Journal 79(2021): 28, https://search.informit.org/doi/10.3316/agispt.20210805051281.

[100] Dale, ‘Enshrining constitutional recognition’, 28.

[101] Megan Davis, et al., ‘The Uluru Statement’, 44.

[102] Kim Rubenstein, ‘Power, control and citizenship: The Uluru Statement from the Heart as active citizenship’, Bond Law Review 30,1 (2018): 21, https://search.informit.org/doi/10.3316/informit.862624794939428.

[103] Dani Larkin and Kate Galloway, ‘Uluru Statement’, 339.

[104] Rubenstein, ‘Power, control and citizenship’, 21.

[105] Larkin and Galloway, ‘Uluru Statement’, 339.

[106] Dale, ‘Enshrining constitutional recognition’, 29.

[107] Jason O’Neil, ‘Designing an Indigenous Voice’, 201.

[108] O’Neil, ‘Designing an Indigenous Voice’, 201.

[109] Shireen Morris, ‘The argument for a constitutional procedure for Parliament to consult with Indigenous peoples when making laws for Indigenous affairs’, Public Law Review 26 (2015): 176–177. https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3189950.

[110] Morris, ‘The argument for Parliament to consult’.

[111] Lauren Day and Anne Worthington, ‘A voice for the Arctic’, ABC News, October 20, 2022, https://www.abc.net.au/news/2022-10-20/sami-parliaments-indigenous-voice-foreign-correspondent/101512762.

[112] Day and Worthington, ‘A voice for the Arctic’.

[113] Anne Twomey, ‘Indigenous Voice can be heard without undermining powers of parliament’, The Australian, July 26, 2019, https://go.gale.com/ps/i.do?p=AONE&u=unimelb&id=GALE%7CA594460339&v=2.1&it=r&sid=bookmark-AONE&asid=1134da08.

[114] Twomey, ‘Indigenous voice’.

[115] Jack Latimore, ‘What’s Indigenous sovereignty and can a Voice extinguish it?’ The Age, February 9, 2023, https://www.theage.com.au/national/what-s-indigenous-sovereignty-and-can-a-voice-extinguish-it-20230113-p5ccdk.html.

[116] Latimore, ‘What’s Indigenous sovereignty?’

[117] Asmi Wood, ‘Voice, treaty, truth’, 82.

[118] Latimore, ‘What’s Indigenous sovereignty?’

[119] Latimore, ‘What’s Indigenous sovereignty?’

[120] Latimore, ‘What’s Indigenous sovereignty?’

[121] Anne Twomey, ‘An Indigenous advisory body: Addressing the concerns about justiciability and parliamentary sovereignty’, Indigenous Law Bulletin 8,19 (2015): 6, https://heinonline.org/HOL/P?h=hein.journals/indibull8&i=606.

[122] Twomey, ‘Indigenous Advisory Body’, 6.

[123] Twomey, ‘Indigenous Advisory Body’, 7.

[124] Twomey, ‘Indigenous Advisory Body’, 7.

[125] Twomey, ‘Indigenous Advisory Body’, 8.

[126] S. Donaghue, ‘Opinion in the matter of proposed section 129 of the Constitution’, April 19, 2023, https://www.aph.gov.au/DocumentStore.ashx?id=ea88212c-eccc-45d2-822c-8578fa96895c&subId=740367. 

[127] This is the translation first used by the National Aboriginal Conference, critically discussed by L.R. Hyatt, ‘Treaty, Compact, Makarrata …?’, Oceania 58,2 (1987): 140–144, https://www.jstor.org/stable/40332345

[128] Fleay and Judd, ‘The Uluru Statement’, 3.

[129] Joint Select Committee on Constitutional Recognition relating to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples, Final Report (Canberra: Commonwealth of Australia, November 2018), 140, https://www.aph.gov.au/Parliamentary_Business/Committees/Joint/Former_Committees/Constitutional_Recognition_2018/ConstRecognition/Final_Report.

[130] A non-profit organisation founded in 2015 by Julian Leeser and Damien Freeman, both from the centre-right.

[131] Joint Select Committee, Final Report, 141.

[132] Gabrielle Appleby and Megan Davis, ‘The Uluru Statement and the promises of truth’, Australian Historical Studies 49,4 (2018): 502, DOI: 10.1080/1031461X.2018.1523838.

[133] Appleby and Davis, ‘The Uluru Statement’, 502.

[134] Appleby and Davis, ‘The Uluru Statement’, 503.

[135] Appleby and Davis, ‘The Uluru Statement’, 502.

[136] Appleby and Davis, ‘The Uluru Statement’, 503.

[137] Fleay and Judd, ‘The Uluru Statement’, 6.

[138] Appleby and Davis, ‘The Uluru Statement’, 509.

[139] Fleay and Judd, ‘The Uluru Statement’, 6.

[140] John Hewson, ‘Coalition objections to the Voice’, The Saturday Paper, October 1, 2022, https://www.thesaturdaypaper.com.au/opinion/topic/2022/10/01/coalition-objections-the-voice#hrd.

[141] Fred Chaney and Greg Carne, ‘The long road to Uluru and beyond’, The University of Notre Dame Australia Law Review 21,6 (2019), https://researchonline.nd.edu.au/undalr/vol21/iss1/6.

[142] John Chesterman, ‘Settling on a national Indigenous Australian “voice”’, Australian Public Administration 80 (2021), 364–365.

[143] Andrew Jakubowicz, ‘Will multicultural Australians support the Voice? The success of the referendum may hinge on it’, The Conversation, February 9, 2023, https://theconversation.com/will-multicultural-australians-support-the-voice-the-success-of-the-referendum-may-hinge-on-it-199304.

[144] Waleed Aly, ‘The biggest threat to the Voice is the tenor of today’s politics’, The Age, January 27, 2023, https://www.theage.com.au/national/the-biggest-threat-to-the-voice-is-the-tenor-of-today-s-politics-20230126-p5cfm2.html.

[145] Nick Bryant, ‘Spare us the gotcha questions: My plea to fellow journalists’, The Age, February 11, 2023, https://www.theage.com.au/national/spare-us-the-gotcha-questions-my-plea-to-fellow-journalists-on-the-voice-20230209-p5cj74.html.

[146] Ed Coper, ‘It’s our first social media referendum. The rules of engagement have changed’, February 19, 2023, https://www.theage.com.au/politics/federal/it-s-our-first-social-media-referendum-the-rules-of-engagement-have-changed-20230216-p5cl4a.html.

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